The French Socialist Community in Illiinois

THE FRENCH SOCIALIST COMMUNITY IN ILLINOIS
RETYPED FROM NEW YORK HERALD NEWPAPER OF 1854 BY: BOB BAXTER IN 2014

 Half-Yearly Report of President E. Cabet

What the Icarians Have Done, Suffered and Effected-Heresies and Schisms-How they Live, Flourish and Enjoy Themselves. New Colony in Iowa. Mr. Cabet’s Demand on Congress for 100,000 arcres of land. Interesting Resume of Transactions.

{We translate from the Revue Icarienne} – the organ of the Socialist community established at Nauvoo, Illinois – the following half-yearly report presented to the General Assembly, at the close of September, 1855:-

GENERAL AND PRELININARY OBSERVATIONS.

Conformably to the Icarian Constitution I proceed to make a report to the community on it’s personal, material and moral condition, after the first six months of 1855. Almost all those who come to visit the colony express their astonishment at seeing it’s progress, it’s development, in so short a space of time, it’s buildings, it’s workshops and industry, it’s agriculture and cattle, it’s refectory and gardens, it’s  schools and their happy children, it’s toilers or it’s citizens, who appear to be united among themselves as brothers..

Some of those visiters, and some of the organs of the press, speak of the Icarian Colony as the most gigantic enterprise conceived and executed in the interest of humanity.  And  when it is considered that the object contemplated by the colony is, in effect, to essay the system of social organization most capable of assuring the happiness of the human race, can anyone refrain from saying that the enterprise is gigantic?

When it is considered that the members of Icaria are all associates, all free and independent citizens, all brothers and equals in rights and in duties, in enjoyments and in responsibilities-without having anyone having exclusive privileges- without their being rich or poor- with marriage, family and education for all-without prosecution or gendarmes, who can refrain from saying that it is the most advanced system on the route of social amelioration?

And when it is considered, in spite of innumerable obstacles, Icaria as been subsisting for six years whilst all other socialist attempts have failed, that it is increasing every year in numbers and in wealth, that it is continually making new acquisitions, and particularily that it is founding a new establishment in Iowa, who can prevent himself from acknowledging that the community is progressing? Neverless, I frankly confess that I am not content.

This is, perhaps, because I, the founder of Icaria, responsible in some degree for it’s success, recognizing better than anyone else what is wanting to its realization, am more difficult to please and more exacting than any other person.

      I declare, nevertheless, in the same breath, that for my part, our experience is decisive; that the community appears to me undoubtably realizable, and that it’s complete success is no longer a question of means, of time  and administration. And yet I repeat, I am not content. I find that we do not know and we do not practice the principles sufficiently well; that we have not enough of devotion and fraternity, of order and of economy, of public spirit and of solidarity.

I mean to tell the whole truth, and to make known all my opinions, all my sentiments, for without as well as for ourselves, and to be more free, more independent, more bold- to place my word at the height of my moral responsibility, in opposition to all saIcarians, and even to all Democrates. I will explain myself more as a founder than as a President of the colony. Fatigued, suffering, longing for repose, and only retained by the conscionsness of duty, my explanations will have, in my eyes something solemn.

I desire, I should wish, to hurt no one by the epression of my opinion; but inspired, urged on, by considerations of the general interest, I wish, above all, to say everthing that I believe useful and necessary.

         A FEW WORDS ON ICARIAN COMMUNISM.

The Icarian Communism is, you all know, one of those things most grave and most worthy of attention, for it is the system of social organization which, after long meditation , we have believed, and do believe, to be the one most fitted to guarantee the happiness of humanity.

That, in all times and in all countries, a multitude of vises and of crimes, of revolutions and of wars, have caused the misery of the human race, is a fact of incontestable as it is manifest; the evil is certain. According to us Icarians, the cause of this evil is in the excessive inequality of fortune, in the opulence of some, and in the misery of the mass, which nesessarly brings along with it, ignorance and oppression-all disorders, with all abuses. According to us, also, the remedy is in a better social organization, in association, or socialism, in communism replacing individualism or egotism- in the universal community of property, based on fraternity and equality – on solidarity and unity, on education and labor, on marriage and the family relations purified and perfectionized. According to us, the remedy can only be in the supression of poverty, and poverty can only be suppressed by association or the concentration of efforts, by placing all resources in common, and moderation in enjoyments.

The Icarian system, you are aware, I have explained in the “VOYAGE IN ICARIA” and in “TRUE CHRISTIANITY” in more than forty writings and in Journals-in La Populaire in which I have refuted all objections, and the success of my Icarian propagandism during ten years has been so prodigious that from being simple Democrats, or even revolutionists, you and the Icarian mass have become Icarian communists, and have adopted all my principles of fraternity, of morality, of generousity, and of community. Our adversaries, you must remember, themselves recognized that the Icarian system was magnificent, and limited themselves to proving that it was too fine to be relizable, particularly in  present day. To destroy this objection I resolved to attempt the realization of the system, by converting theory into practice.

If the government of Louis Phillippe had aided me, or had even been tolerant in an experiment of such universal interest—if I had been able to try the experiment in France, making there all the necessary preparation, without precipitating anything, I would have had all the desirable means in material, in numbers, in money; and I have not the slightest doubt that success would have been certain for an enterprise perhaps the most prolific in decisive results for the safety of humanity. But a terrible persecution, less bloody, however, than the ancient persecution of the Christians by the Pagans, constrained me to propose to you a grand emigration to America, there to form an Icarian colony, or the community of Icaria; and you surely recollect the enthusiasm with which you accepted my confidence or my proposition of emigration.

TWO WORDS ON EMIGRATION; OR, THE ICARIAN COLONY.

Our emigration, our colony, do not, therefore, resemble any other. It is not in a sentiment of personal interest, or in a petty egotism for the sake of enriching ourselves by exploring the land, or for the sake of becoming individual proprietors, that we have quited our country and braved the ocean without any title to the attention and to the gratitude of the world. It is through devotion to the humanitarian cause, for the sake of experimenting in the desert the system of the Icarian community, by braving everything in the interest of humanity.

So, I have not hesitated to recommend you often to the sympathy and to the good wishes as well as to the administration of all enlightened minds and of all generous hearts; and whatever maybe said, whatever maybe done, whatever may occur, nothing can destroy the merit of the statements, and this merit is so much the greater, I like to repeat, that I have not dissimulated to your aught of the innumerable difficulties of the enterprise-of the annoyances and privatations—of the fatigues and perils—of the sicknesses  and sacrifices of all kinds to which it must be necessarily have exposed us. The very women, the Icarian women accepted everything with admirable courage, at the same time that they renounced their jewels and every adornment of vanity.

And I repeat to you continually, that although desiring a numerous emigration, I desired quality more than quantity; I wished that no person should present himself as an Icarian who did not possess all the Icarian virtues, who did not regard the rule of fraternity, with all it’s consequences, as a religious worship, who had not the habit of good will and tolerance, of politeness and respect, of loyalty and of probity, of fidelity to engagements and to duties of decency and modesty, of labor and study, of order and propriety, of economy and frugality.

Accepted by you as your guide and your chief, saluted by the title of Master, of whom you called yourselves the disciples, and by that of father, of whom you styled yourselves, children, I explained to you thoroughly, that organization, discipline, and the scrupulous observance of rules and laws were a vigorous necessity in the commencement of a colonization with men coming from all countries and having no acquaintance with each other. So the majority of you declared that they would not set out unless they had a chief invested with a dictatorial power during ten years, and even that they would not do so without any othe chief than myself. And I confess in my turn, that I myself should not have set out without that power which appeared to me indispensable in founding such a colony, and even if I had any other object besides the creation of an Icarian community.   So when the first advance guard departed from Havre, on the 3rd. of February 1848, it signed the solemn pledge to obey the manager of Icaria, as I myself took the engagement to devote myself to their safety. It is true that subsequently that I myself proposed a constitution establishing an elective directory, annual and multiple; but if; as was first projected, the colony had established itself in Texas, in the desert, I should have preserved all my first authority, so as to be sure of being able to prepare and realize democracy in all its purity. And to-day, if any colonizer should do me the honor of asking my advice, I would unhesitatingly counsel him to make no attempt without having all the power and money necessary.

                     DEPARTURES FOR TEXAS.

DATES.          SPECIAL TITLE OF EACH DEPARTURE.  NUMBER LEAVING

DEC. 2, 1847—FIRST COMMISION ————————— 1

FEB. 3, 1848—FIRST ADVANCE GUARD———————-69

JUNE 1, 1848—SECOND ADVANCE GUARD —————-19

AUG.12, 1848—COMMITTEE OF FIVE ———————— 5

SEPT. 28, 1848—THIRD ADVANCE GUARD——————–23

OCT. 25, 1848—DEPARTUTE BY BORDEAUX—————–54

NOV. 2,  1848—FIRST GREAT DEPARTURE——————–83

NOV. 12, 1848—SECOND GREAT DEPARTURE—————74

NOV. 28, 1848——THIRD GREAT DEPARTURE————–114

DEC.  19, 1848——FOURTH GREAT DEPARTURE———–  45

                                  ADMITTED AT NEW ORLEANS———–11

TOTAL—————————————————————–498

                      ABANDONMENT OF TEXAS

The first advance guard, composed of 69 men having arrived in Texas about the end of April, urged on by vigor in the cause and braving fatigue and heat, is soon seized with fever and loses many of it’s members. Almost all are ill when the second advance guard arrives. Frightened by these maladies and these losses, almost demoralized by fever, the two first advanced guards resolve on retreat, depart individually, and arrive at New Orleans while the families which set out from France are arriving there. This abandonment of Texas is a great misfortune, for the Icarian enterprise loses there about a million acres of land which had been gratuitously granted to it.

Disorganized by this retreat, the Icaians resolve to lodge and board in common in New Orleans, working there until my arrival. They needed courage to support the annoyances, the privations and the inconveniences of this provisional community. In the meantime they dispatch three commissions to explore the centre of Texas and the banks of the Mississippi River, ascending towards the North.

                             DEPARTURE FOR NAUVOO

The cries of death raised against me by the National Guard, on the 16th. of April, 1848, the uninterrupted persecution up to  December, the rigor of winter, are all unable to prevent me departing and coming  to share your lot; and I arrive at New Orleans, in the midst of the cholera, in January, 1849. I begin, by declaring that the first two  advanced guards had no right to dissolve the Icarian Society without my consent, and that I considered as void the dissolution resolved by them. After several discussions in general assembly, I propose and we decide that those who desire to  withdraw are at liberty to do so; that the common fund will remit two hundred francs to each, and those who persevere shall ascend to Nauvoo, to found there the community provisionally. We set out on the 1st. of March, to the number of 280, of whom 112 are men, 74 are women, and 64 are children, of all ages, and we arrived in Nauvoo the 15th. of the same month, with a numerous baggage, and only 46,000 francs.

           PROVISIONAL ESTABLISHMENT AT NAUVOO

These 280 Icarians who had the courage to support the annoyances, privations and fatigues of the sea voyage in the steering of the vessel, of the sojourn at New Orleans, and the voyage on the Mississippi in the steerage of the steamboats, will also have the courage to support the annoyances and privations of the first establishment at Nauvoo. We have almost everything to create for ourselves, and to organize; we hire farms and residences; we repair buildings and make our own furniture; we buy the remains of the Mormon temple destroyed by fire, some acres of land adjacent, and some buildings, horses, cattle, utensils and matters of primary necessity, and all that with a capital of 46,000 francs on arriving in Nauvoo, reduced to $1,000 on 1st. of August 1850.

The report here proceeds to enumerate the expenditures of the enterprise, from which it appears that there was expended, previous to the embarkation, 111,910 francs and advanced to delegations 174,057 francs; total paid in Paris, 285,967 francs, or $57,200. According to the cashiers reports there remained in the treasury—

On 1st. of April, 1849……………………………………………………..$7,702

On 11th. of November, 1849……………………………………………  ……5

On 5th. of February 1850……………………………………………………228

On 1st. of August      1850………………………………………………  1,000

The President’s reports continues;

No one for a moment could believe that we should have been able to begin such an enterprise with so small a capital, for we had need of large advances of much money; and the unexpected revolution of February, the persecution which followed, the retreat from Texas, had destroyed all our hopes, all our resources and all our plans. We required to have much courage; but we were wanting neither energy or perseverance.

In the meantime our first steps were very difficult. The cholera comes to put us to cruel proofs; some schisms and some abandonments came to weaken us; whilst the recruitment and the propagandism are languishing, and bring us but little new resources. To reanimate this propagandism I propose the law of 5th. April, 1850. Our first rules prohibited abandonment, considering, considering it as desertion, and did not grant any restitution to him who withdrew. In 1850 I proposed a new system, establishing a provisional admission, or a novitiate of four months, with power of withdrawal and restitution of four fifths of what was brought to the fund, and a definitive admission, without interdiction of withdrawl and with restitution of half only of what was brought in. This is a law of expediency for propaganism and of safety for the colony. It is unanimously accepted.

During this time persecution grows bitter against me in France; it is desired to kill me mortally—to kill communism and the colony. I am condemned at Paris in my absence, as if my project of Icarian colonization had nothing real in it, and was only a fraudulent manoeuvre imagined by me and prepared for a long time to despoil the Icarians and to inrich myself with their spoils. This was so absurd and foolish, that in one of your addresses you declair that “this is one of those iniquities which might suffice of itself to dishonor a century.” Our enemies were everywhere saying that I would not dare to go to America; but I do return to Paris in June, 1851, as I had departed for New Orleans in December, 1848. I appear before the court—I reduce the calumniators to silence, and I procure the annulment of the sentence, which was a surprise to human justice. I prepare to join the colony, and I work for it. When the 2nd. December breaks out all my papers are seized, and I myself am carried away as a socialist chief, and transported to England.

During my absence of one year some members of the colony became lax in their observance of Icarian principles; the administration which succeeded me found itself drawn along into cowardly concessions, and the directory urged me to return. He who presided over it wrote to me that if he were near me he would throw himself at my feet to induce me to a prompt return. And so I leave, abandoning operations commenced in the interest of the colony, and I return into its midst at the beginning of April , 1852.

NATURALIZATION—COLONY IN IOWA—SCHISMS.

We soon take several important measures, particularly the declaration of our intention to demand our naturalization as Americam citizens, and the establishment of a new colony in Iowa, to found there the community definitively. We send there a first small advance guard of ten men, whom we reinforce successfully and continually.

A short time afterwards, when union and unity of action are still absolutely necessary to us, some members demand. Contrary to my well know sentiment, the abregation of the law of 5th. April inder the pretext or through the motive that this law violates equality, which is one of the principles of Icarian communism; and their reasonings are so spacious that the seduce and draw to their side a sufficiently large numbers of their bretheren; but I show that this law does not at all violate equality; that it is only a necessary measure of propagandism and safety; and the great majority comes back to my opinion. Unfortunately the partizans of abrogation are members of the directory. The same men who the most anxiously demanded my return, considering my advice as indispensable, persist in preferring their view to mine, and thus commence a new schism. This is, in my opinion, and inexplicable fault, which will trouble womewhat the harmony of the society.

The inconveniences of this dissidence and of the laxity introduced during my absence, became so numerous and so grave, that I thought it proper to propose, at the close of 1853, an Icarian reform, to return to the rule of Icarian principles. This reform appeared so necessary that it was adopted almost unanimously, and confirmed in February, 1855, after long explanations on my part to make necessity felt.

I at length arrive at our condition during the first six months of 1855. But first, a few words more on the accounts of the Icarian bureau at Paris. I have already said that before 1852 the books of the Paris bureau, regularly kept, were four times carried away by the police, particularly for the prosecution of 1851, and after the Coup d’ etat. Since 1852 the duplicate of the cash book containing the receipts and expenditures has been regularly sent each month. Here is the resum’e it appears the receipts were 38,578 francs, the expenditures 36,792 francs, and the amount in the treasury 1,786 francs.

Here is the resum’e for the years 1852 to 1855:

                                    TOTAL RECEIPTS  – TOTAL EXPENSE -BALANCE

1852………………………..38,578   64 f.               36,792   07 f.       1,786   57f.

1853…………………………28,960  37 f.                28,706  00            1,254   37

1854…………………………55,064   28                   53,974  99            1,089   29

Total………………………..152,732 21                  149,315 71

The receipts are composed of the products of the sale of old and new pamphlets, of subscriptions to the Journal, of sums recovered from old investments brought in at Paris. The expenses comprise drafts on New York, investments, of the expenses of office and correspondence, of purchases, more or less considerable, of different objects demanded by the community.

    CONDITION OF PERSONNEL ON 1ST. OF JULY, 1855

                                                                                  MEMBERS

On 1st. January 1855, the colony compromised….  452

Arrived up to 1st. July …………………………………………    93

Born …………………………………………………………………..    10

Total  ……………………………………………………………………………….      555

Died …………………………………………………………………………………           2

Left…………………………………………………………………………………………..27

 

Remaining on 1st. July 1855……………………………………………………..526

The greater number of those who left were only provisionally admitted. The greater number were children brought away by their fathers and mothers; and the greater number still were the Germans, who did not speak French (a want that is attended with innumerable inconveniences,) who had neither our habits or our principles, and who called themselves , or believed themselves Icarians, without being even communists. Their departure will make us use more precautions for the future. Other Germans who came with them have determined to remain with us, as several of those who have heretofore left announce their desire to return, particularly one, who says to us;–“If there be any in the community who desire to leave it, I will tell them that they are acting foolishly; that they will never find that which they leave behind—fraturnity, liberty, a life tranquil and withour inquietude-for , though I have found my wife’s family good and generous hearts, the community is much better.”

We are also informed from Paris that two members of the first advance guard, who returned from Texas to France, are going to set out again for the colony.

The addition since the departure of September 1854, was only 51, (men, women and children,) whilst that of February 1855 , is 58, and whilst that which is to take place in September 1855, is announced as being to comprise from 80 to 100 Icarians.

Of the 526 members of the community present an 1st. July 1855, 57 are in Iowa and the remainder at Nauvoo; 30 were naturalized in March, 1855, and 27 in October, 1854, which makes the number of Icarians who are American citizens 57. When we mention nine marriages, three civic registrations and two moralability of the conjugal union be respected, we will have the whole movement of the personnel during the first six months of 1855.

The report then proceeds to a review of the material condition of the colony. It had sustained a  loss by fire of from $4,000 to $6,000; a loss of horses and cattle by distemper and accident, and a portion of the harvesting through the inclemency of the seasons. One of their most useful men, who had charge of the principle stable, was drowned in the Mississippi, and one of the most accomplished young girls was killed by lightning. Other deaths and sicknesses, chiefly caused by imprudence, also weakened the colony, by disorganizing its workshops and paralyzing labor more or less. They had completed a building for a dwelling on the square of the temple, and were preparing three others. They were reconstructing their burned buildings; they had bought lands in Iowa for more than $2,000; the dwelling house and some land attached, near the mill, for about $800; the dwelling house in Nauvoo, capable of accommodating forty families, for more than $2,000; a raft of building wood for nearly $2,500; they were making many repairs and improvements in the mill and elsewhere; they were decorating the refrectory; they were purchasing dinner services in delft and glass; were importing another of wrought iron from Paris; were buying or fabricating machines and utencils; were commencing a gymnasium; were imbelishing the esplanade of the temple, placing it in trees and seats, and designing verdant swards with flowery borders, and having their music in the open air on Sunday after supper, performed by twenty of their own musicians, children of their school.

The dearness and scarcity of provisions affected the community somewhat; nevertheless the report claims that the Icarians have certainly been better nourished than the mass of ouvriers anywhere else. In the morning after rising, and before going to work, the men take a drop of whiskey with some bread; at breakfast they have soup, vegetables, or cold meat— the women generally taking coffee and milk; at dinner they have one or two dishes; at supper they have soup and one or two dishes. They sometimes mutton; fresh pork regularly during the winter, with sourkrout, and cured ham, and other portions of the pig; excellent fish once or twice a week during the fishing season; pies, potatoes sweet potatoes, rice, butter, cheese and eggs, green vegetables of all kinds, salad, radish, cabbage, peas, carrots, onions and sometimes fowl. This year they were to have an immense quanity of peaches, and next year, apples and othe fruits. They had as yet no grapes, but they intend to cultivate the vine. For economy sake they had used water at meals for several months; but they generally drank coffee at breakfast and dinner, and tea at supper; between meals tempered with whiskey; they intended to brew and to drink, as soon as could, beer or every other drink. Their clothing is of the simplist material, at the same time adapted to the variations of climate. Everything tending to luxury or coquetry is, the report says, as contrary to our necessity of economy as to our principles of reason and morality. All wore straw hats in summer, made by the young women. For economy sake, and having no tannery, they had to wear, clogs or sabots, instead of leather boots. The idea of the President is to have a separate dwelling for each family; but the scarcity of funds and of masons precluded the realization of that for the present. The furniture is simple, but should comprise everything necessary. It is made by themselves, but their stock is far from being complete. They had established a pottery for manufacturing earthen vessels. The wells are not numerous enough, and there was a scarcity of pumps. They wanted stoves and lamps for every family; charcoal an wood, candles and oil, a carriage and horse. A physician, who is at the same time a surgeon takes care of their sick, making daily visits to the infirmary, and to the schools, and to the sick in their domiciles. They have baths for the infirmary and for the children. The women and girls bathe in the large washing basin, and the men and boys in the Mississippi. “When we build a city,” says Mr. Cabet, “every house will perhaps have it’s bathroom.

There is a large school, divided into two parts—one for the boys from five to sixteen, containing thirty-nine pupils; and a small school, or place of safety, comprising twenty-two children, boy and girls from three to five years, independently of thirty-five children below that age, who remain constantly with their mothers, who have pretty little carriages to promenade them. The children of the large school eat and sleep in the school.

The mill, which is on the banks of the Mississippi, and is worked by a steam engine of eighteen horse power, has been acquired principally to assure to the colony it’s provision of flour and bread. It also grinds for the inhabitants of Nauvoo and for commerce. Temperance being one of the principles of the Icarian community, it probably would not have constructed a distillery for the fabrication of whiskey, but ther being a distillery attached to the mill which is needful to buy, the distillery had to be acquired, and then it was necessary to utilize it for either for the wants of the community or of commerce. The distillery furnishes food for twenty cows, twenty-five oxen, and over three hundred pigs. The community also runs a saw mill, which it uses for its own work and for the public. It has also, for the service of the mill, to for corn, and to carry their produce to Keokuk, whence it is conveyed by steamboat to St. Louis, two large boats, and some barks, served by seven or eight men, and a larger, deeper and more substantial flat boat. They attend to agriculture, garden-ing , cultivating fruits and flowers, raising cattle, poultry etc. They have a printing press, by which they print journals in French, and German, and many pamplets and tables. It also does job work, and thus adds to the support of the colony. They first printed a newspaper in English, called the Popular, after the Nauvoo Tribune, replaced in 1854 by the Icarian Colony, in French, published weeky, but the French police prohibited its circulation in France. Then they published the Revue Icarienne, monthly, the publication of which in France the police have also prevented. They also published a German monthly, under the title of the Communist.

The colony has a public library, containing of 4,000 volumes, and many exchange journals, received from France and America, which are left in the refectory. They have also a pretty little theatre, whith handsome decorations executed by their painters, in which, on Sundays, in presence of the whole colony  and even of some residents of Nauvoo, a company of the members perform pieces and sing either separately or in chorus. Their band of music is composed of thirty-four pieces; almost all the boys learn music. They are often employed to play on public occasion, and sometimes has received as high as $100.00 for their services. They have also balls during the winter.

                                                       IOWA

Our establishment at Nauvoo, says Mr. Cabet, has only been provisional, because all the land there were occupied, and very dear, and we had not money enough to buy them; and as we had to rent them we were unable to profit by our improvements. We could not undertake anything, found anything; and we could not establish there the community. A definitive establishment elsewhere, in a country where we could  be proprietors of a vast territory, was therefore indispensable to us. But where to go? Oregon, Texas, Kansas and Nebraska being too distant, or too much occupied, or not suiting us for other reasons, we had, immediately after my return from France in 1852, selected Adams County, in the state of Iowa, nearly two hundred miles eastward from Nauvoo, between the Mississippi and Missouri, at fourteen or fifteen days’ distance with oxen, or five to six with horses.This place was not everything that could be desired for perfection, under all aspects; but where could we then, or to-day, find the objects of all desires? We found there, under a climate as healthy as, and even more so, perhaps, than that of Nauvoo, a large extent of excellent arable land, of producing all sorts of grains, vegetables and fruits; a small river, and water everywhere, with wells; wood in sufficient, quantity, which we might improve for the raising of a great mumber of cattle; and increase indefinitely by planting; places suitable for the raising of a great number of cattle; stone and brick earth for building purposes; coal in the country; the certainty of a railroad to unite the East with the West, which would pass within a few miles only or our projected colony, and which would be soon in operation; the possibility of having steam engines where water power might fail; in fine, the facility, in a short time, of industrial and commercial communications.

These are the capital advantages which determined us in selecting this county of Adams, in Iowa. We first pre-empted and afterwards bought lands, of which we possess more than 4,000 acres near the little river; we have sent there cattle, machines and utencils, and successfully eight convoys containing 71 persons. Several have returned, for various reasons, the colony only contains 57 individuals, of whom 33 are men, 3 young men, 15 women, 1 young girl and 5 children. These first colonists have built wooden houses, cleared, labored, planted, made a garden a mill, a saw mill, brick, etc. They have some horses, some oxen, more than a hundred cows or heifers, pigs, and a good deal of poultry. They have harvested corn, maize, potatoes, vegetables etc.

But in spite of all our desires and all our anxiety to transport completely the community into Iowa, the thing is for the moment impossible; because it is first necessary to prepare dwelling places in Iowa; and the complete and definitive translation will necessarily require time and much money. We must therefore keep Nauvoo for some years still as a provisional station, as a novitiate, as a school for our children, as a centre of propagndism; we must preserve the habitations for those who do not leave at first, and a few new comers from France; we must preserve our mill, our agriculture even reduced, or workshops, etc. in a word, our general organization.

In the meantime I shall go with the colony to see everything myself, and to determine the site of a small city or Icarian community, the building of which maybe commence in the spring. Then I shall go and ask Congress for an answer to the petition which I presented to it in the autumn of 1854, to obtain the grant of 100,000 acres of land, or even its sale, with terms of payment. If we are able to succeed, as I expect, we shall have much credit and may be bold in our enterprises.

Mr. Cabet then proceeds to discuss the moral situation of affairs, and recapitulates the conditions of admission. These are, to be well acquinted  with the Icarian writings, to know how to read and write, to be actuated by devotion to the Icarian community, to be especially devoted to the cause of women and children, to adopt the principles of equality in every thing, to adopt the principles of fraternity , to pledge careful avoidance of all injuries, all crimes and all calumnies; to adopt the principle of true liberty, to adopt the princilple of community by renouncing every individual property, and to adopt the principle of unity.

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